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In G. Simmons Calculus Gems, New York: McGraw Hill Inc., 1992.
'He Advanced Him 200 Lambs of Gold': The Pamiers Manuscript
Prices and Purchases
Each of our next two sample problems entails a set of purchases that can be analyzed as a system of linear relationships.
The first is stated in terms of the sous, a coin mentioned earlier, and the setier, a measure of volume for liquids and grains that is roughly two gallons (it was one of the units swept away by the French Revolution). See whether you can figure it out.
The other sample problem mentions a gold coin of France called a “lamb of gold” (moto d’aur in Languedocian or mouton d’or in modern French, cognate with the English word “mutton”). It was worth 12½ sous. The coin contained an image of a lamb accompanied by a Latin inscription to Christ, who is often referred to by Christians as Agnus Dei, the Lamb of God. See the photograph of a moto (a moto photo!) below.
Figure 9. A “lamb of gold” coin from France, this one struck in the year 1311. Abbreviated in Latin is an invocation to Christ, Agnus dei qui tollit peccata mundi miserere nobis (“Lamb of God who bears the sins of the world, take pity on us”). (Image: Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. / Wikimedia Commons, licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.)
Schwartz, Randy K., "'He Advanced Him 200 Lambs of Gold': The Pamiers Manuscript," Loci (July 2012), DOI: 10.4169/loci003888