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Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write.
H. G. Wells
Lilavati of Bhaskara
This is a page from a manuscript of the Lilavati of Bhaskara II (1114-1185). This manuscript dates from 1650. The rule for the problem illustrated here is in verse 151, while the problem itself is in verse 152:
These verses and much else from the Lilavati may be found in Kim Plofker, "Mathematics in India", in Victor Katz, ed., The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A Sourcebook (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), pp. 385-514.
This page from the Lilavati gives another illustration of the Pythagorean Theorem.